Gender dysphoria is a distressed state arising from conflict between a person's gender identity and the sex assigned at birth. The term transgender is used to describe individuals, whose gender identity differs from the assigned sex at birth. Transgender men are persons assigned female at birth, but who self-identify as male. When a person's identity matches the gender assigned at birth, the term cisgender is used. Non-binary persons are persons, who consider themselves as both male and female or alternatively, as neither male nor female. Indeed, there is a growing awareness regarding non-binarity, which is often referred to as gender fluidity.
The number of transgender individuals in Denmark is estimated to be approximately 6,000, but this number may be far too low. Recent European studies reported that 0.6-0.8% of people assigned female at birth and 0.7- 1.1% of people assigned male at birth reported an incongruent gender identity. This would correspond to approximately 50.000 Danish individuals. At present, around 600 persons are referred annually to the clinics in Copenhagen and Aalborg (around 300/center/year), but the number of transgender persons attending health care facilities is increasing, most likely due to increasing awareness.
Transgender men want to use testosterone to change body shape from feminine to masculine and to increase strength.Testosterone treatment in transgender men has been reported to be overall safe regarding short term morbidity, however long term studies are warranted regarding the prevalence of adverse events, complications, and reference values of blood samples, cardiovascular function and respiratory function.
The aim of this study is to follow a cohort of 200 transgender men on testosterone for 10 years, regarding cardiovascular risk factors, body composition, respiratory function, maximal oxygen consumption and quality of life .
Collaborating researchers and departments
Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital
- Professor and Head of Research Jan Frystyk PhD DmSci
- Professor Marianne Skovsager Andersen PhD DmSci
- Head Consultant Jeppe Gram PhD
- Louise Lehmann Christensen PhD
- Consultant Dorte Glintborg PhD DmSci
Gender Identity Centre, Aalborg University Hospital
Gender Identity Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen
Department of Endocrinology, Ghent University Hospital, Belgium
Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark
Research Unit of Muscle Physiology and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Pharmacology and Genetics, Odense University Hospital
Elite Research Center for Individualized Medicine in Arterial Disease, Odense University Hospital (CIMA)
Center of Clinical Proteomic, Odense University Hospital (CCP)
The Clinical Cardiovascular Centre of Centre of Excellence (CAVAC), Odense University Hospital
Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Odense University Hospital
Department of Psychology, University of Southern Denmark
The Molecular Endocrinology & Stem Cell Research Unit (KMEB), Odense University Hospital & University of Southern Denmark